RTI is a process of determining appropriate support and interventions to supplement the core curriculum to meet the needs of all learners. This framework for instruction bases decisions on benchmark and progress monitoring data to improve achievement. Research on RTI has its roots in Deno's data-based program modification model (1985) and Bergan's behavioral consultation model (1977). The RTI approach is included in NCLB and IDEA and is part of Rhode Island Personal Literacy Plan guidance (2005) and Learning Disability Guidance (2005). Hauerwas (2006) in her work with the Rhode Island schools identified five components of a Response to Intervention approach:
1. A Problem-solving Philosophy
The practice of making important educational decisions about students using a problem-solving philosophy involves a strategic decision making process based on data about student achievement and rate of learning. View online or download "a problem-solving philosophy" powerpoint presentation to learn more.
A new direction in providing supports and services is a comprehensive consultation model whereby individuals collaborate in various ways as part of a problem solving process. This model ensures that student needs are identified early, appropriate instruction/interventions are implemented and student progress is monitored for program efficacy and decision making. One mechanism for this process is the Personal Literacy Plan. Learn More
Interventions are targeted instruction based on student needs. They are designed to be coordinated with and enhance the comprehensive curriculum that is provided in general education. Learn More
Progress monitoring assessments are quick probes that provide teachers with on-going information about students' response to intervention. The goal of these assessments is to provide teachers with data to answer two questions:
- is she/he making progress towards a grade-level expectation or long-term goal?
- is she/he making progress towards mastery of a targeted skill?
5. In Some Cases Part of the Special Education Process
For some students the strategic decision making process of Response to Intervention continues and is used as part of the process that identifies a student with a learning disability. Visit Learning Disabilities and Response to Intervention (RTI) for more information.